Mount Hood is a potentially active volcano, and the highest peak in Oregon State. It is located approximately 75 km ESE of Portland, OR.
In the last 1,500 years, Mount Hood has had two major eruptive periods that produced lava domes, pyroclastic flows and mud flows, and minor ash fallout. The most recent major eruptive period began in 1780 and lasted for one to two decades. Minor eruptive activity was observed during the mid-19th century. Rapid melting of snow and glacier ice by pyroclastic flows can generate large lahars that race down river valleys.
The Cascades Volcano Observatory and the PNSN cooperatively operate 6 seismometers on or near Mount Hood. On average, we locate 0 to 3 earthquakes within 10 km of the volcano each week.
Seismicity of 1990 - 2012
NOTE: In Feb. 2012 a very small earthquake swarm took place resulting in a blog posting on the new PNSN web pages.
Seismicity at Mount Hood is primarily characterized by fairly intense swarms of micro-earthquakes which typically occur about 4 to 7 km south of the summit. Over three quarters of the roughly 250 earthquakes which have been located at Mount Hood during the 1990s have occured in these swarms. These swarms usually last from a few hours to a couple of days and have had as many as 50 well located earthquakes and as few as 4. The largest event in a swarm usually does not occur at the beginning (such as a main shock-after shock sequence). The largest event in the roughly 15 sequences during the 1990s have varied from M=1.6 to M=3.5.
Decadal Seismicity (2001 - 2011)
Below you will find an epicenter map and time-depth plot for a region around Mount Hood for the decade, approximately 2001 - 2011 that shows typical or background levels of earthquakes in this region. There are a good number of seismograph stations located on (2) or very near (4) the volcano such that the regional seismic network can reliably detect and locate earthquakes of magnitdue 0.5 and larger in this area. Even smaller earthquakes can sometimes be detected and located though some also are missed.
- Red dots represent events occuring in the last month.
- Green dots represent events occuring in the last year, but more than a month ago.
- Circles represent older events.
- Triangles represent PNSN seismic stations. Station names are listed below each triangle.
- Black star indicates approximate position of Mt. Adams summit.
- Magnitude and distance scales appear at lower right.
All of the earthquakes in the Mount Hood sequences have characteristic waveforms similar to tectonic earthquakes. Swarms of these types of events are fairly common on many volcanos. These are in contrast to low-frequency volcanic earthquakes which have a very different character and may be indicators of a possible eruption. The Mount Hood events likely are occurring on a fault or fault system located to the south of the volcano and represent either its reaction to regional tectonic stresses or possibly deep-seated volcanic stress below the region. Volcanic history and details of Mount Hood is summarized by pages at the Cascade Volcano Observatory.
Description of the earthquake swarm at Mount Hood in January, 1999:
An earthquake swarm began near Mount Hood in northern Oregon early Monday morning (Jan 11, 1999) and produced more than two dozen earthquakes that day, the largest of which were magnitudes 3.2 (at 2:04 pm PST) and 3.0 (at 8:54 am PST). Following a pause in activity on Tuesday and Wednesday, another magnitude 3.2 earthquake occurred at 3:56 am PST Thursday (Jan. 14, 1999), followed by a magnitude 3.0 earthquake at 8:13 am PST. The largest earthquakes were felt at Timberline, Brightwood, Parkdale, and Mount Hood Meadows. A paper published in 2005 (J. Jones and S.D. Malone, Mount Hood earthquake activity: volcanic or tectonic origin, Bull.Seis. Soc. Amer. #95, 818-832) studied the early swarms in great detail.